This essay collection is organized chronologically and intentionally ignores traditional geographical boundaries. The question of how Europeans manipulated native ideas about gender for their own purposes and how indigenous people responded to European attempts to impose gendered cultural practices that clashed with native thinking informs all of the work. The essays address how indigenous people made meaning of gender and how these meanings changed over time within their own communities. Several of the contributors consider sexual practice as a site for cultural articulation, as well as a vehicle for the expression of gender roles. And, race is an important lens through which many of the authors examine native history.